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Business School Library: Referencing

APA 6th

APA 6th is the referencing style adopted by The Business School.  As it is a Global standard, if you use a referencing management tool, like Endnote or Mendeley, the outputs i.e. your references, should be the same.  Similarly, if you use Google to find APA 6th referencing help, again, the outputs should be consistent.  APA 6th is what is know as an author/date system and as such your Reference List would be in alphabetical order, by author.

Law students should use OSCOLA referencing style.  Please see Legal referencing & citations box on this page for more information.

Citing & Referencing a Book

Basic book

Surname(s), initial(s). (year of publication). Title of Book in Italics (Edition, if later than 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Author Citation Reference
One Author

Boddy (2014) argues…


The conclusion reached (Boddy, 2014) was…

Boddy, D. (2014). Management : An introduction (6th ed.). Harlow : Pearson Education.

One author, fewer than 40 words quoted.

Include the quotation in the paragraph and include the page number(s).  Use double quotation marks to show the quotation.

The growth in the use of the internet has led to a digital culture.  “This digital culture erodes boundaries between producers and consumers” (Boddy, 2014, p.366).


With internet usage growing rapidly, Boddy (2014) contends that “This digital culture erodes boundaries between producers and consumers”(p.366).
Boddy, D. (2014). Management : An introduction (6th ed.). Harlow : Pearson Education.

One Author, 40 or more words quoted.

Begin quotation on a new line, indented by 5 spaces.  Include page number(s).

Don’t use quotation marks.

Double space between your text and the indented quote.

When doing business internationally there is a lot to consider.  Boddy (2014), for example, points out that

The economic context of a country includes its stage of development as well as levels of inflation, exchange rates or levels of debt. The measure of economic development usually used is income per head of population – a measure of a country’s total production, adjusted for size of population. (p.113)

Therefore a full analysis of that country….

Boddy, D. (2014). Management : An introduction (6th ed.). Harlow : Pearson Education.


Author Citation Reference

Two Authors

As per single author style but name both authors.

Robbins and Coulter (2015)


(Robbins & Coulter, 2015)

Robbins, S., & Coulter, M.K., (2009) Management (10th ed.).London: Pearson Education.


Author Citation Reference
Three to Five Authors

As per single author, but name all authors in initial citation.

(Ireland, Hoskisson & Hitt, 2013)

Subsequent citations

(Ireland et al., 2013) 

Ireland, R, Hoskisson, R., & Hitt, M., (2013) The Management of Strategy: Concepts and Cases (10th ed.). London: Cengage Learning.


Author Citation Reference
Six to Seven Authors First author’s name, followed by et al. e.g. (Smith et al., 2015, p.5) Reference as a book and name ALL the authors.


Citation Reference 

Walker and Robertson (2016)


(Walker & Robertson, 2016)

Walker, K. & Robertson, S. (2016).  Contextualising information literacy to assessment criteria: a collaborative approach. In C. Penman & M. Foster (Eds.), Innovations in teaching and learning (pp.107-122). Edinburgh: Merchiston Publishing

Note: the above refers to a 1st edition, if 2nd ed or later put that before the pp. in brackets after title of the book e.g. (2nd ed., pp. 107-122)


Citing & Referencing Journal Articles

Surname(s), initial(s). (year of publication). Title of Article. Title of Journal in Italics, volume (part), page range (e.g. 3-8.)




With one author

Corbett (2011) argues that..


The conclusion reached (Corbett, 2011) was...

Corbett, L.M. (2011). Lean Six Sigma: The contribution to business excellence. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 2(2), 118-131

PLEASE NOTE: Rules for all other numbers of authors and for direct quoting of text are the same styles as per the book examples.

[Reference for a print journal]. doi: OR Retrieved from http://www.

  • If you can see the DOI (Digital Object Identifier, which provides a permanent link to the article), add this to the end of the reference.
  • Otherwise, put “Retrieved from” and then the web address.
  • Both the DOI and web address are not required – it’s one or the other.
Author Citation Reference
With a DOI Gray (1988) advocates… Gray, S. J. (1988) Towards a theory of cultural influence on the development of accounting systems internationally. Abacus, 24(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6281.1988.tb00200.x
Without a DOI Bai (2009) states… Bai, H. (2009) Facilitating students’ critical thinking in online discussion: An instructor’s experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 156-164. Retrieved from


Legal referencing and Citations

Here is a link to the quick OSCOLA referencing guide.

Here is the full, in depth OSCOLA referencing guide


Newcastle University does an amazing page on using OSCOLA with ENDNOTE reference manager.  Definitely worth a look!

Referencing Help

Some tips and help with referencing

Basics of APA Style online tutorial

   Are you getting confused as to how to use references in your academic writing?

Try the referencing section of Getting Ready For University Study. You can also talk to a  Student Learning Adviser from the Student & Academic Services team about your writing and referencing. 

The Business School APA6th Quick Guide

Secondary References

Secondary referencing is where you need to refer to the work of an author which you have not read in the original, but have learnt about from another author.

Whenever possible you should use the original work, however if this is not possible, you must make clear that you have not read the original by referring to the work in which you found the reference. 

How to do this?

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)
E.G. Smith's 1956 study (as cited in Jones, 1998) found that ... 
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read],
      Year, page number)
E.G. "...this study has proven that more people prefer tea to coffee." (Smith, 1956, as cited in Jones, 1998, p. 51)
Reference List
In the reference list you only reference the source that you have read.
E.G. Jones, P. (1998). A History of Tea and Coffee. Edinburgh:Capital Publishing.

Citing & Referencing Tables & Figures


There are separate rules for figures and tables.

  • Figures refer to graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc.
  • Tables refer to numerical values or text displayed in orderly columns and rows

General rules

  • All Figures and Tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2 etc.) and referred to in your document as Table 1 or Figure 1
  • Each table should have an individual title. Each word in the title should be italicized and capitalized except with, of, in, and, etc.
  • All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper and in the reference list
  • Edinburgh Napier University database licence agreements allow students to use images in assignments. State copyright and also write: Reprinted with permission.

Table 1. 

Mobile Phones in UK: Brand Shares by Retail Volume 2011-2016


United Kingdom
Mobile Phones
iPhone       Apple Inc 17.3 19.1 24.0 28.6 30.4 31.0
Samsung   Samsung Corp 19.6 28.2 31.3 30.9 30.2 28.7
Lumia        Microsoft Corp - - - - 11.1 10.7
LG             LG Corp 5.0 4.1 4.8 5.1 5.0 4.8
HTC           HTC Corp 6.6 5.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.5

Note. Retrieved from  Copyright 2016 by Euromonitor International. Reprinted with permission.

In-text citation
As shown in Table 1, Apple's iPhone is the number one mobile in the UK ...

Reference list

Euromonitor International. (2016). Mobile Phones in UK: Brand Shares by Retail Volume 2011-2016 [Table]. Retrieved from

If you are adding an image (a graph, table, chart etc.) from a book or journal then you have to name the image/chart e.g. Figure 1. 

The formula is as follows: 


Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.


Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from “Title of Article,” by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Journal Title, Volume(issue), page number. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. 

When referring to the image in your text, you would say…as shown in Figure 1… for example.

And then the normal type of full reference in your reference list. E.g. book/article etc